In 1947, the school was established to provide basic education for children of immigrants from China. It was formerly the primary section of Nan Chiau High School, which operated at Kim Yam Road. In 2001, it operated as a new primary school in Sengkang New Town. Its rich history and strong traditions can be traced back to Nan Chiau Girls' High School. It was acknowledged for excellence in music, dance and drama.
Today, Nan Chiau Primary is a popular school, catering to students of all races. The school mission remains the same: to help realise the potential of every child in five main areas of development - Cognitive, Aesthetic, Moral, Physical and Social (CAMPS). The school vision is "Every Nan Chiau Pupil A Responsible and Useful Citizen".